目的探讨长期住院的男性精神分裂症患者认知功能的变化与事件相关电位P300的关系。方法入组长期住院男性精神分裂症患者82 例和健康对照52 人。采用美国Nicolet Viking Quste 诱发电位仪记录事件相关电位P300 的潜伏期和波幅。采用动物命名测验、范畴流畅性测验、数字划消测验、连线测验(TMT-A 、TMT-B)、Stroop 测验( 单词、颜色、色词干扰测验)、木块图测验、WMS-Ⅲ空间广度测验评估认知功能。结果患者组各项认知功能测验成绩与对照组之间差异均有统计学意义(P ＜0.01)。患者组事件相关电位P300 潜伏期较对照组明显延长(t=22.990，P ＜0.01)，波幅较对照组明显降低(t=-9.699，P ＜0.01)。患者组事件相关电位P300 潜伏期与数字划消测验及TMT-A 呈正相关(r=0.481，P ＜0.01；r=0.245，P ＜0.05)。事件相关电位P300 波幅与数字划消测验呈负相关(r=-0.338，P ＜0.01)。结论长期住院男性精神分裂症患者虽处于稳定期，但仍存在认知功能的损害。事件相关电位P300 的潜伏期和波幅可能是精神分裂症认知功能的电生理指标，并与患者的认知量表评估结果之间存在相关性。
Correlation between cognitive function and event-related potential P300 in male long-term hospitalized patients with schizophrenia
Objective To investigate the relationship between cognitive function and event-related potential P300 in male long-term hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Method Totals of 82 male long-term hospitalized patients with schizophrenia and 52 healthy controls were recruited. The event-related potential P300 was analyzed by the United States Nicolet Viking Quest evoked potential instrument.The cognitive function was tested by animal naming test，category fluency test，digital cancellation test，trail taking test (TMT-A，TMT-B)，stroop test (word，colour，word-colour interference test)，block design test and WMS-Ⅲspatial span test. Results There were significant differences between patient group and controlgroup in all items of cognitive function assessment scales (P＜0.01) . There were longer latency of P300 (t=22.990，P ＜0.01) and lower amplitude of P300 (t=-9.699，P ＜0.01) in patient group than that in control group. The P300latency was positively correlated with digital cancellation test and the score of TMT-A in patient group (r=0.481，P＜0.01；r=0.245，P＜0.05). Moreover，P300 amplitude was negatively correlated with digital cancellation test in patient group (r= -0.338，P＜0.01). Conclusion The male long-term hospitalized patients with schizophrenia still have cognitive impairment，even when their psychiatric symptoms are stable. The latency and amplitude of event-relatedpotential P300 may be an electrophysiological marker of cognitive function in schizophrenic patients，which were correlated with the results in the cognitive assessment scales.